Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an acute, fever causing viral disease that affects domestic animals and humans.
In Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), this pathology is not well documented. No epidemic of the RVF has not been reported but sera samples collected in six provinces surveyed from 2005 to 2006 revealed 14% of apparent prevalence and, high apparent prevalence (20%) of antibodies against RVF virus was reported in Katanga Province during the same survey; this serological evidence was associated with abortions cases in Cattle (Mulumba et al. 2009). Livestock immunisation is important for control of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) epidemics; however immunisation of susceptible domestic animals in endemic countries does not protect animals against the clinical disease but prevents the propagation of virus to human population through reduction of the amplification degree in host animals. The humoral immunity is sufficient for protection for animals as well as for humans. The infection caused by RVFV leads to neutralisation of the immunity of the animal (Barnard 1979).
Various immunological studies have been made on the characterisation of immune response during RVFV epidemics but, until now several studies have been concentrated on the response of the innate immune particularly based on signal interferon system than the response of the adaptive immune and cell mediated humoral immune. The available information on the immune response related to RVFV does not seem to provide enough information on various mechanisms of the response immune system.