Human-animal anthrax outbreak in the Luangwa valley of Zambia in 2011.

There has been a reduction of incidences of anthrax in the developed countries but it is still a public health problem in the developing countries where communities live in interface areas with wildlife. An outbreak of anthrax in Hippopotamus amphibious was observed in Zambia. Following the death of hippopotamuses, suspected human cases were reported. The…

Foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes detected in Tanzania from 2003 to 2010: conjectured status and future prospects.

This study was conducted to investigate the presence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in different geographic locations of Tanzania. Epithelial tissues and fluids (n = 364) were collected from cattle exhibiting oral and foot vesicular lesions suggestive of FMD and submitted for routine FMD diagnosis. The analysis of these samples collected during the period of…

Foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes detected in Tanzania from 2003 to 2010: conjectured status and future prospects.

This study was conducted to investigate the presence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in different geographic locations of Tanzania. Epithelial tissues and fluids (n = 364) were collected from cattle exhibiting oral and foot vesicular lesions suggestive of FMD and submitted for routine FMD diagnosis. The analysis of these samples collected during the period of…

Filoviral haemorrhagic fevers: A threat to Zambia?

Filoviral haemorrhagic fevers (FVHF) are caused by agents belonging to Filoviridae family, Ebola and Marburg viruses. They are amongst the most lethal pathogens known to infect humans. Incidence of FVHF outbreaks are increasing, with affected number of patients on the rise. Whilst there has been no report yet of FVHF in Zambia, its proximity to…

Evidence of Yersinia pestis DNA from fleas in an endemic plague area of Zambia

Yersinia pestisĀ is a bacterium that causes plague which infects a variety of mammals throughout the world. The disease is usually transmitted among wild rodents through a flea vector. The sources and routes of transmission of plague are poorly researched in Africa, yet remains a concern in several sub-Saharan countries. In Zambia, the disease has been…

Epidemiological investigation into the introduction and factors for spread of Peste des Petits Ruminants, southern Tanzania.

A study was carried out to confirm and identify sources and elucidate factors associated with the introduction of Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) in southern Tanzania. This study was conducted in Tandahimba and Newala districts of Mtwara region following suspected outbreak of PPR in the area. Qualitative data were collected using semi-structured questionnaires and in-depth…

Epidemiological aspects of bovine trypanosomosis in an endemic focus of eastern Zambia: The role of trypanosome strain variability in disease pattern

Bovine trypanosomosis displays various epidemiological aspects in various areas. In some instances the disease has a high prevalence in animals with high impact on production whereas in other cases the disease has a low impact on production despite a high level of infection in animals. In addition epidemiological changes are frequently observed in various areas…

Ebola virus outbreaks in Africa: past and present.

Ebola haemorrhagic fever (EHF) is a zoonosis affecting both human and non-human primates (NHP). Outbreaks in Africa occur mainly in the Congo and Nile basins. The first outbreaks of EHF occurred nearly simultaneously in 1976 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, former Zaire) and Sudan with very high case fatality rates of 88%…

Comparison of a recombinant nucleocapsid IgG indirect ELISA with an IgG sandwich ELISA for the detection of antibodies to Rift Valley fever virus in small ruminants.

Serological tests are widely used for Rift Valley fever (RVF) surveillance, disease control, and monitoring of immunological responses after vaccination. In recent years, several enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) formats have been developed for the detection of antibodies to RVF virus, but limited comparisons of their diagnostic sensitivities are available for specifically-targeted animal populations. This article…